GENEVA, Switzerland (CMC) — The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced plans to improve the chances of survival for people living with cancer in the Caribbean by ensuring that health services can focus on diagnosing and treating the disease earlier.
New WHO figures indicate that each year 8.8 million people die from cancer,
mostly in low- and middle-income countries such as those in the Caribbean.
In the Americas, an estimated 1.3 million people die each year from
cancer, which is the second-leading cause of death in most countries of the
region, according to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).
PAHO said one problem is that many cancer cases are diagnosed too late.
Even in countries with optimal health systems and services, PAHO said
many cancer cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage when they are
harder to treat successfully.
“Diagnosing cancer in late stages, and the inability to provide treatment, condemns many people to unnecessary suffering and early death,” said Dr Etienne Krug, Director of WHO’s Department for the Management of Noncommunicable Diseases, Disability, Violence and Injury Prevention.
“By taking the steps to implement WHO’s new guidance, health care planners can improve early diagnosis of cancer and ensure prompt treatment, especially for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers,” he added. “This will result in more people surviving cancer. It will also be less expensive to treat and cure cancer patients.”
In Latin America and the Caribbean, PAHO said the majority of cancer deaths among men are due to prostate cancer, followed by lung, stomach and colorectal cancers; in women, breast cancer leads, followed by stomach, lung, cervical and colorectal cancers.
In contrast, in Canada and the United States, lung cancer is the leading cancer killer for both sexes, PAHO said.
All countries can take steps to improve early diagnosis of cancer, according to WHO’s new guide to cancer early diagnosis.
It said the three steps to early diagnosis are: Improve public awareness of different cancer symptoms and encourage people to seek care when these arise; invest in strengthening and equipping health services and training health workers so they can conduct accurate and timely diagnostics; and ensure people living with cancer can access safe and effective treatment, including pain relief, without incurring prohibitive personal or financial hardship.
PAHO said it provides additional tools and guidance for decision makers and health providers on how to improve early diagnosis of cervical, breast and childhood cancers.
“Challenges are clearly greater in low- and middle-income countries which have lower abilities to provide access to effective screening programmes, diagnostic services, including imaging, laboratory tests and pathology — all key to helping detect cancers and plan treatment,” PAHO said.
It said countries also currently have different health system organisation and capacities to implement organised screening programmes, and to refer cancer patients to the appropriate level of care.
WHO encourages these countries to prioritise basic, high-impact and low-cost cancer diagnosis and treatment services.
The global health organisation also recommends reducing the need for people to pay for care out of their own pockets, which prevents many from seeking help in the first place, working toward universal health coverage and health access.
PAHO said detecting cancer early also greatly reduces cancer’s financial impact. Not only is the cost of treatment much less in cancer’s early stages, but people can also continue to work and support their families if they can access effective treatment in time.
In 2010, the total annual economic cost of cancer through health care expenditure and loss of productivity was estimated at US$1.16 trillion.
PAHO says strategies to improve early diagnosis can be readily built into health systems at a low cost.
In turn, effective early diagnosis can help detect cancer in patients at an earlier stage, enabling treatment that is generally more effective, less complex and less expensive, PAHO said.
For example, it said studies in high-income countries have shown that treatment for cancer patients who have been diagnosed early are two to four times less expensive compared to treating people diagnosed with cancer at more advanced stages.
Dr Oleg Chestnov, WHO assistant director-general for non-communicable diseases and mental health, said accelerated government action to strengthen cancer early diagnosis is key to meet global health and development goals, including the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
PAHO noted that countries agreed to a target of reducing premature deaths from cancers and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by one-third by 2030.
They also agreed to achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all.
At the same time, PAHO said efforts to meet other SDG targets, such as improving environmental health and reducing social inequalities, can also help reduce the cancer burden.
Cancer is now responsible for almost one in six deaths globally, PAHO said.
It said more than 14 million people develop cancer every year, adding that this figure is projected to rise to over 21 million by 2030.
In the Americas, PAHO said almost three million people develop cancer each year, stating that this figure is expected to rise to 4.5 million by 2030.
“Progress on strengthening early cancer diagnosis and providing basic treatment for all can help countries meet national targets tied to the SDGs,” PAHO said.